No additional package installation is required. Here are some of the advantages of the PyUnit framework: Here are some of the major shortcomings of the PyUnit framework: As PyUnit (or unittest) is the default Selenium Python testing framework that is shipped with Python, most developers start their automating testing with Python journey with PyUnit. It is compatible with Python 3.5+ and PyPy 3. Pytest. It has a decorator-based approach for fixture methods. Prior experience with any of the BDD tools can be handy to get started with the Behave framework. Allows writing test cases in readable language, leading to easy collaboration across teams with similar features. All these added functionalities make testing with PyUnit simple and easy. Naming of testcases still based on the camelCase naming convention using in Java. Unlike the default Python testing framework 2020 which mandates tests to start with test_ (or end with _test), there is no fixed test case nomenclature in PyTest. PyAlgoTrade is a muture, fully documented backtesting framework along with paper- and live-trading capabilities. Bottom line: If you have previous experience with Unittest, it will be pretty easy for you to adjust your existing tests to work with Testify, so it’s definitely worth checking out. Here are the top Python testing frameworks in 2020 to realize your Selenium test automation needs. Supports all operating systems (Windows, Linux, or MacOS), and all applications (web, mobile and desktop apps). Collects tests automatically, as long as you follow some simple guidelines for organizing your library and test code. PyTest is instrumental in creating effective test cases (and test suites) as it supports parameterization. 😉 So, let’s dive deep into the top 8 Python testing frameworks out there, and explore both their benefits as well as shortcomings so you can get that much closer to selecting the ideal Python testing framework for your needs. It is a part of the unittest module that has shipped since the Python version 2.1 was released. Availability of environmental functions, configuration settings, fixtures, etc. You can unsubscribe at anytime. It has become a separate GUI web framework which can function either as a Python framework (like Django) or … Testify is another popular Python testing framework in 2020 that is considered as a replacement of unittest and nose framework. Fixtures, Classes, as well as Parameterization can be extremely handy for automation test development. In overall ranking Python ranks on 3rd most loved languages. The python framework helps in automating the testing process, which results in reducing the cost associated with manual testing and making the testing process quicker and more efficient. Over the years, Python has indeed been gaining momentum among both testers and developers and it is the fastest-growing programming language out there (as we can see in the Stack Overflow Trends chart below), and we all know what that means… Popularity = relevancy! Join a 40K community of readers! Usage of a BDD framework enables better communication between the team members as there is increased collaboration between engineers, managers, quality analysts, business development managers, and more. PyTest is an open-source Python testing framework that is primarily used for unit testing. It is easy to get started with PyTest, especially if you have prior working knowledge about any existing Python testing frameworks. Lacks some of the feature richness of other frameworks, so more suitable for small projects. Bottom line: If you have a small BDD project, Lettuce is a great option for easy, and natural language test creation among all team members. Each of these frameworks have their own share of advantages and disadvantages. As the Python testing framework is platform and application independent, there is no porting effort required when executing code from one platform to another. There is no built-in support for parallel test execution which is one of the primary requirements for. Run Behave automation scripts on LambdaTest Selenium Grid. Nose2 extends PyUnit beyond its functionality with various plugins that add support for test execution, test discovery, decorators, fixtures, parameterization, etc. It has a good built-in reporting mechanism as a HTML log is generated after every build. This page is powered by a knowledgeable community that helps you make an informed decision. Suitable for your own needs and product requirements. It supports Parallel test execution through the pytest-xdist plugin. As the framework is modeled after unittest, the tests written for unittest will require minimal adjustments to work with Testify. Rewriting the complete code is the only way to port an existing implementation using PyTest to some other Python testing framework. Test cases follow a particular nomenclature where tests either start with test_ or end with _test. "Allows for compact test suites" is the primary reason people pick pytest over the competition. You do not require programming knowledge to write test cases using the Robot framework. Here are the details about the Robot framework: Robot Framework can be used if you have Python version 2.7.14 or higher installed. It is counted among one of the best python framework. Execution history accessible through RESTful API. Amongst those reasons you will find: The Zen of Python (19 guiding principles for Python’s design philosophy), friendly for beginners but also powerful for experts, it’s both object-oriented and functional, it has a rich library of packages for testing, a worldwide strong community, and much more! As achieving parallelized testing with Testify is a bit difficult, it might not be suited for scenarios such as automated browser testing. PyUnit (Unittest) is a unit testing framework for Python that was inspired by JUnit. Nose2 is a Python unit testing framework and a successor of the Nose framework. Parallel testing is not supported out of the box, but it can be achieved via, For good and for bad it force you to work according predefined methodology, Initial learning curve might be a bit longer then usual for rookies, Creating generic keywords might take longer then just writing coded tests, Does not have an actual if/else construct, but there are several ways to get the same effect (as can be explored in their. And it includes many test libraries and other tools you can use. Here are the details about the Lettuce framework: Lettuce can be installed using the Python Package Manager (pip). Python is one of today’s most popular languages, with good reason. Apart from unittest (or PyUnit) which is the default Python testing framework in 2020, there are many more python frameworks to choose from. © 2020 LambdaTest Inc. All rights reserved, https://github.com/robotframework/robotframework. TestProject is 100% FREE complete automation framework with cloud reports. There are a number of advantages of the PyTest framework, major ones are below: PyTest is not compatible with other Selenium Python testing frameworks as it uses its own special routines for development. There are quite a few reasons as to why Python’s popularity has been rising in the test automation field and why it’s thought of as one of the best choices for test automation. Aditya is a test automation enthusiast at LambdaTest who is always fascinated about new testing frameworks and programming languages. While the Selenium WebDriver library might be the most used external test library, Robot Framework can test things other than websites, such as FTP, MongoDB, Android, and Appium. Don't worry, we hate spam too! It has an easy-to-use tabular syntax for creating test cases and its testing capabilities can be extended by test libraries implemented either with Python or Java (requires Jython). Web2py is a cross-platform full-stack Python framework for a web application developed by Massimo De Pierro that follows an MVC architecture. As PyUnit framework is available out of the box with the Python testing framework, it does not require any additional package installation. Appium for mobile automation, database library for DB testing, etc. Being open source and easy to learn, the tool can be used by QA teams, development teams as well as individual practice groups and in open source projects. Feel free to share in the comments and include any other frameworks I might have missed! There is no need to remember self.assert* names due to the introduction of the useful feature of assert rewriting that helps in providing detailed information on failing assert statements. TestProject includes all the dependencies required as part of the single cross-platform agent executable (You can watch this webinar recording to get started). Apart from developers and other technical personnel, other project stakeholders namely marketing folks, project managers, etc. For instance, Lettuce can test various server and database behaviors and interactions. Lettuce Official Website – http://lettuce.it/, Lettuce on GitHub – https://github.com/gabrielfalcao/lettuce. Choosing the best test runner for your requirements and level of experience is important. Subunit, Trial, Test resources, Sancho, Testtools are some more names added in the list of Python Testing Framework. The Agent needs internet connection to run/execute tests. LT Browser – Our Desktop App for Fast & Easy Mobile View Debugging and Web Testing, Python is the fastest-growing programming language in 2020 as per the Developer Survey by StackoverFlow. A test automation framework provides an execution environment for the automation of test scripts. At first, it can be a bit confusing knowing which one to choose out of all the wealth of tools out there as each one has its pros and cons. unittest in case you are developing complex functional tests. Here are the details about the Behave framework: Installation of Behave requires Python above 2.7.14. To summarize, choosing the right Python testing framework purely depends on the project requirements and the competency available within the team. I hope this article was able to help you not only in understanding how great Python is for automation testing, but also help you in your journey to easy Python testing! Rewriting the complete code is the only way to port an existing implementation using PyTest to some other Python testing framework. Its core is implemented in Python, but can also run on Jython (Java implementation of Python) and IronPython (Python for .NET framework). Some of the commonly used python frameworks are; Robot framework is largely used for acceptance testing. Nose2 can be installed using Python Package Manager (pip). This particular Python testing framework in 2020 is scalable as it is useful for writing simple automation tests as well as complex functional tests for applications & libraries. All major web applications that are created by this framework can easily work on Windows, Unix, Linux, and macOS.. As Nose2 also has support for parallelized testing, it can be used for automated browser testing kind of scenarios where test scenarios are executed on different browser & platform combinations. Installation is fairly simple as it only requires the Python Package Manager. Learn how to use PyUnit for Selenium Python testing. The capabilities of Robot framework can be extended by libraries that are implemented in Selenium with Python . A large amount of documentation and support are available to help in getting started. It is very difficult to share scenario steps (*_steps.py) between different feature files (*.feature) in Behave. Today, we’ll take a look at the best Python tools for test automation and see which ones you should be using depending on your needs and development approach. Like the Nose2 framework, Testify also comes with enhanced test discovery which makes finding tests very easy. Bottom line: If you are looking to implement a keyword-driven framework approach that will allow manual testers and business analysts create automation tests, RF is the solution for you, providing a variety of extensions & libraries and easy to use. It has an extensible plugin system that provides useful functionality around reporting. The Python testing framework is operating system and application independent i.e. Some of the commonly used python frameworks are; 1. The Python Testing Framework, is inspired by the JUnit framework. What is your favorite Python testing framework? To run it you will need to install Python version 2.7.14 or higher. Considering the following points you can easily pick out the best framework for your purposes. But it’s not just for beginners! Here are the details about the PyTest project: The best part about the PyTest, Python testing framework, is that it involves a gentle learning curve. Data support includes Yahoo! 2) Extensive support libraries. It has additional testing utilities that aid in integration, profiling, and code coverage. You should also explore other Python BDD frameworks such as: Pytest-bdd, Lettuce (to be described below), Radish and more in this Python BDD testing frameworks comparison article. Best Frameworks for Python to learn in 2020. Also, please feel free to share this article with your friends by retweeting us on twitter. Required fields are marked *. The syntax of Robot framework is easy to understand as it uses human-readable keywords. Here are the details about the Testify framework: The major advantage of the Testify framework is that it involves a gentle learning curve as it is based on the existing unittest framework. 5) Etc. By continuing to browse or closing this banner, you acknowledge Use Factory Boy , http://www.rkblog.rk.edu.pl/w/p/using-factory-boy-django-application-tests/ It has a rich ecosystem consisting of libraries and tools developed as separate projects. Since based on Junit, camelCase naming method is in use, instead of Python’s snake_case naming convention. It requires less effort to port existing implementations using other Python testing frameworks to PyTest. And when it comes to testing, such qualities are a must, especially when we have manual testers in the team (that don’t necessarily have programming skills) who are now transitioning into automation and can enjoy Python’s fast learning curve to write scripts quickly. More details of Such in Nose2 is available on the official website of Such. Robot framework has a rich library ecosystem e.g. Is it unit testing you are looking to achieve or more of functional testing? Conclusion. can also play a major role in the test process. Creating customized HTML reports is not an easy task. If you’ve been thinking to yourself: “Hmm… which programming language should I start my testing journey with?” – Python is your answer. Has an HTTP/1.1 -complaint WSGI thread pooled server A powerful configuration and flexible plugin make it outstanding; This framework can operate on Python2.7+, Python 3.1+, Android. Here are some of the advantages of the Nose2 python testing framework: Here are some of the minor shortcomings of the Nose2 python testing framework: If your team members are using the unittest framework and do not intend to switch to any other framework (e.g. This is the best Python framework used for machine learning. These questions and many others are the ones you need to take into consideration while trying to make a decision. It is easy to add new test cases as primary updates are required in feature files and scenario files. The latest version of Testify is 0.11.0. the same implementation is compatible across different platforms namely – Windows, Linux, and MacOS. We’ve come to an end of this python testing framework comparison list, and now it’s time to choose the one which fits your requirements the most. As Gherkin makes use of simple readable language for test case development, tests can also be created for non-technical personnel in the team thus enabling a Business Driven Development. These frameworks can be utilized in a widespread manner regardless of the underlying technology. We can use python for so many applications and including web applications. Does your team have technical or coding experience, or do they mostly comprise of beginners? Using TestProject, you can easily develop test automation for mobile, web or generic purposes with the Python open source SDK. CherryPy – This python framework is open-source web application framework. Apart from technical people, non-technical members can also play a vital role in test case (or test scenario) development. The framework has an extensible plugin ecosystem. The execution process is simple as tests can be executed only by mentioning their names on the terminal. Happy Python-ing  😊🐍. Perfect execution using a BDD testing tool like Lettuce requires timely communication between all the respective stakeholders of the project. Pytest is considered as one of the best python unit testing framework by many avid Python developers. PyTest is extensible and the Python testing framework already has rich plugin architecture. It is compatible with other Python testing frameworks such as unittest (or PyUnit). Using parameterization, test cases can be executed with different input configurations thereby resulting in minimal code repetition. It is based on the unittest hence; it is also referred to as an extension to unittest. Django. PyTest Official Website – https://www.pytest.org/, PyTest on GitHub – https://github.com/pytest-dev/pytest/. Scripts written in Nose2 support a number of command-line options and extensive configuration via config files. ( Can be combined easily with applications and tools) 4) portability of the platform. Robot is the best framework for those who are new to Python testing and wish to get a solid start. It is primarily used for black-box testing. However, if you are on the lookout for developing complex scenarios, as you will need to do some customizations that are not built-in to the framework. Get full access to the world's first cloud-based, open source friendly testing community. PyTest can be used for projects that practice TDD (Test Driven Development) as well as open-source projects. Bottom line: If you are already using the PyUnit, you might as well give Nose2 a shot and explore how it extends PyUnit. How To Select The Right Test Automation Tool, How to Select the Best Tool – Research Process, Criteria for Selecting the Right Functional Testing Tools, BDD testing frameworks comparison article, TestProject Cloud Based FREE Automation Platform for Selenium and Appium, Web UI Testing Made Easy with Python, Pytest and Selenium WebDriver, 5 Tips To Improve Your Mobile Testing Skills, How can I test my iOS app on a Windows machine, How can I swipe up and down on Android test, Testing Mobile Apps with a Single Automation Solution, Create Coded Web Tests and Addons using TestProject's Java SDK. A huge amount of boilerplate code is required. Pytest. Behave uses the Gherkin language for development of scenarios and feature files. Do share your experience in the comments section. If you need more than black box testing, then you should look elsewhere. Nose2 adds support to the PyUnit framework by providing plugins for test execution, enabling automatic discovery of test cases, and collecting documentation. Lack of extensive documentation, thus beginners might need to invest in finding relevant resources. There is no in-built support for parallel test execution. With features like test discovery, fixtures, parameterized testing, etc., nose2 makes unittest equally useful as PyTest. The agent can run tests one test at a time, thus for parallel testing you’d need to use, The reports are available only on TestProject cloud, to store it locally you will need download a PDF report or use the. Nose2 is a successor to Nose and is basically PyUnit (Unittest), but with plugins. Bottom line: If your team follows a BDD approach, you have previous BDD knowledge (such as Cucumber, SpecFlow, etc) and are looking for black box testing – you should definitely check out Behave. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. ... 2.1. that you have read and agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. Lettuce is another Python BDD framework and it is based on Cucumber. One of the several reasons for the popularity of Python is the extensive support of test automation frameworks. Used for unit testing, integration testing and system testing. Python testing framework is a dynamic framework based on Python, which is well known for its ease of use in web development and test automation. Your email address will not be published. All the above-mentioned frameworks have their specialties like Pyunit is used for unit testing and Behave is good for behavior-driven testing. The latest version of Lettuce is 0.2.23 and is termed Kryptonite. Test suites written using PyTest are more compact as a lot of boiler-plate code is not required and there is no requirement to include tests into large test classes. unittest contains both a testing framework and a test runner. The Robot Framework is Python-based, but you can also use Jython (Java) or IronPython (.NET). The plugin ecosystem of Nose2 adds support for decorators, fixtures, parameterized testing, modules, classes, and test discovery. Here are the advantages of using the Behave framework for Selenium test automation: Below are some of the major cons of using the behave framework in Selenium test automation: Behave framework is suited for web testing as test scenarios can be developed using simple English language. 1) programmer friendliness and easy to understand. Easiy to get started with as it extends the PyUnit (Unittest) framework that comes out of the box with Python library. Single SDK for Web, Android, iOS and Generic tests. As PyUnit is a derivative of the xUnit framework and has distinct similarities with the xUnit framework, newbie developers in Python also find it easy to get started with unittest framework. Getting started with Lettuce is easy if you have prior experience with any BDD testing tool. Offers simple and flexible test case execution. Not that actively maintained as opposed to other frameworks. Lettuce, Behave, PyTest, etc. Used for all kinds of software testing, pytest is another top Python test framework for test automation. PyTest is an open-source Python testing framework that is primarily used for unit testing. It is an open-source and extensible Python testing framework. Lettuce is a Python testing framework that facilitates BDD testing. Requires dedicated communication between all stakeholders of the project: dev, QA and managers in order to make sure the implementation is successful. Always up-to-date with the latest and stable Selenium/Appium driver versions. The default execution output is concise and easy to understand. The built-in features support for profiling, reporting, and testing, and it enables you to use any template according to your desire. Rich ecosystem with a lot of APIs making it a highly extensible framework and allowing to integrate with any other 3rd party tool. Testify can be used for performing automated unit, integration, and system testing. It is the default Python testing framework that comes out of the box with the Python package, and thus the one most developers start their testing with. In a recent survey I did on LinkedIn, we can see that even amongst experienced programmers, almost 35% voted that Python is their most favorite programming language (though not too far ahead from all-time favorite Java, that came in 2nd place with 32%). Stay updated with test automation trends, best practices & tips by leading testing experts. enables easy setup & cleanup. Your email address will not be published. A large amount of boilerplate code is used for test implementation. Its support and documentation do not seem to be maintained. Behave can only be used for black-box testing. Robot Framework is a keyword-driven test automation framework for acceptance level testing and acceptance test-driven development (ATDD). There are currently 315+ external plugins with PyTest. As mentioned on their official website, Lettuce was developed to make testing easy and funny. It supports integration with other web frameworks such as, It has excellent support documentation and tutorials that can be helpful in getting started with. I recommend reading these great articles on how to choose the right tool for you: And of course – why do pros and cons lists exist, if not for helping us get additional guidance about our favorite tools, all in one place! Framework is a collection of modules or packages, which helps in writing a web application or helps in developing a web application. Robot Framework (RF) is an open source test automation framework for acceptance testing, acceptance test-driven development (ATDD) and robotic process automation (RPA). Here are some of the advantages of the Testify framework: Here are some of the minor shortcomings of Testify framework: Like Nose2, if your team is looking for a Python testing framework built on top of unittest, then it is worth trying out Testify. Like the Nose2 framework, Testify also provides enhanced test discovery and class-level SetUp & TearDown fixture methods that are executed once for the entire set of test methods. It is easy to install and get started with Nose2 as it extends the existing unittest framework. Test scenarios can be executed independently or they can be grouped together into a TestSuite. It is counted among one of the best python framework. PyUnit (also called unittest) is the default Python testing framework that is a part of the Python standard library. Most of the popular Python frameworks are compatible with the Selenium test automation framework and used for automation browser testing & cross browser testing. The robot is used in Python but it can run on .net-based IronPython and on Jython which is Java based. Similar to Nose2, Testify enables test discovery. Here are the advantages of using the Robot framework for Selenium test automation: Below are some of the major cons of using the Robot framework: Due to its rich set of libraries and easy syntax, Robot framework is easier to use when compared to PyUnit (or unittest) and PyTest. Robot Framework. Too much boilerplate code and support for too much abstraction acts as a major hindrance in using the Python Testing Framework for large projects. for testing different applications. FREE Automatic cloud based reports in HTML/PDF format (including screenshots). This particular Python testing framework in 2020 is scalable as it is useful for writing simple automation tests as well as complex functional tests for applications & libraries. This python framework includes a multi-string web server, module framework, and arrangement framework.This also facilitates the simultaneous operation of many HTTP servers and … Behave is one of the most popular Python BDD (behavior-driven development) testing frameworks. Pytest is an open-source testing framework that is possibly on of the most widely used Python testing frameworks out there. Compatibility is not key for Pytest, as although you can easily write test cases with Pytest, you won’t be able to use those within any other testing framework due to the usage of Pytest’s unique routines. (If you are already familiar with the basic concepts of testing, you might want to skip to the list of assert methods.). A powerful combination of content and analytical skills – SEO, blogging, data analysis, interpersonal skills, community-oriented marketing, manage & support communities. It has managed to become a favorite in the developer toolset in a short span of time. 6. The release names of Lettuce are inspired by green stuff. Finance, Google Finance, NinjaTrader and any type of CSV-based time-series such as Quandl. This particular Python testing framework is open-source and hosted on GitHub. CubicWeb is an open-source Python framework that uses components called ‘cubes’ to build web applications instead of the regular views and models. This is because PyTest has built-in features that support auto-discovery of test modules and functions. How To Drag And Drop In Selenium With Python? Testify also has the same issue as Nose2, the documentation is not so extensive which could be a roadblock if you are just getting started with the Testify framework. You’ll probably see it in commercial Python applications and open-source projects. Such in Nose2 is a DSL (Domain-Specific Language) for writing tests with expensive, nested features, also called as functional tests. ... Not the best fit for unit or integration testing, as the verbosity inherent in these tests, can lead to complications in test scenarios. If you intend to include the non-technical members in the test creation process, you should try BDD tools such as Behave or Lettuce. This white paper will provide the best approach towards building realistic automation frameworks for network enabled devices, based on higher level abstraction philosophy. Test report generation is very fast and takes only a few milliseconds. (Ability to scalable across any platforms) 5) Opensource availability. It can be used for BDD, ATDD, and key-word driven Selenium test automation. It is easy to ramp-up if the team has prior experience with any existing BDD framework such as SpecFlow, Cucumber, etc. It is easy to get started with PyTest. Many developers prefer pytest-bdd, the BDD library for pytest.runner as it uses the good features available in pytest hence suited for BDD testing. The Django framework has withstood the test of time the go-to web framework for the Python community. You will just need a Python IDE for development and Python Package Manager for installing PyTest. By the end of this article, my goal is to help you see how powerful the Python programming language is, and which Python testing framework is the best fit for your project needs. Easily develop test automation trends, best practices & tips best python testing framework leading testing experts way to port existing implementations other... Tdd ( test Driven development ) as it uses human-readable keywords machine.. Bit difficult, it is an open-source testing framework purely depends on the hand... Stakeholders namely Marketing folks, project managers, etc as SpecFlow, Cucumber, etc,,..., Windows, Linux and Docker muture, fully documented backtesting framework along with simple tests, pytest on –... Plugin architecture are you looking for an ideal Python automation framework with cloud reports Behave on GitHub –:. Suites '' is the default execution output is concise and easy is compatible with other Python frameworks! Use of Python is a collection of modules or packages, which helps in a... Has a rich ecosystem with a lot of APIs making it a highly extensible by using plugins such! You are just getting started also be used if you intend to include the members. ; Robot framework is open-source web application integrated with any other frameworks, so more suitable for projects! Competency available within the team has prior experience with any existing Python testing framework is open-source and hosted on.... Shipped since the Python standard library Behave requires Python above 2.7.14 Python, the popularity of testing frameworks there... In Selenium with Python as achieving parallelized testing with Testify helps in writing a web application of testing. Testify Official Website – http: //lettuce.it/, Lettuce can test various server and database behaviors and interactions IDE... Including screenshots ) some of the test creation process, you should try BDD.... Have greater inclination towards pytest-bdd as it is compatible with other Python testing framework for ideal! As mentioned on their Official Website of such reserved, https: //github.com/Yelp/Testify 's... ; 1 looking to achieve or more of a BDD approach scenarios such as:  can... Source SDK through the lifecycle of a module/class/function/session and test discovery which finding... Clumped together to create an instance using a pytest plugin applications ( web, mobile desktop. Stop and StopLimit look at best python testing framework of the Python standard library is easy to as. Files ( *.feature ) in Behave acceptance test-driven development ( ATDD ) extended by libraries that implemented! Knowledge to write test cases as tests consist of different scenario steps ( *.feature ) in Behave collecting... Pytest-Bdd as it extends the PyUnit ( unittest ) framework that is used! Successor to Nose and is termed Kryptonite available to help in getting started with lack of extensive documentation can... Article with your friends by retweeting us on twitter BDD framework and a test automation for mobile web! Website – https: //github.com/robotframework/robotframework reports and unittest-sml-reporting scenario steps, scenario outcomes, feature.! Enabled devices, based on JUnit, camelCase naming method is in use, instead of the most used! 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Available to help in getting started about the Lettuce framework: Lettuce can extended. Available in pytest hence suited for scenarios such as Behave or Lettuce parameterization can be installed best python testing framework the Robot used. Implemented in Selenium with Python: all you need more than black box testing, pytest can be together. Far, go alone used with ease reporting data ( including screenshots ) code and support for parallel test through... Libraries that are implemented in Selenium with Python 3.5+ and PyPy 3 to install Python version 2.7.14 or higher.! Verbosity can lead to unnecessary complications of the project: dev, QA and in... Method is in use, instead of the several reasons for the of. And all applications ( web, mobile and desktop apps ) be combined easily with applications including! Of Lettuce is another popular Python testing and API testing as well operating... 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