It also furnishes information regarding symmetry, sexuality and interrelationship of various floral parts viz., calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. Longitudinal Section Through a Lily Flower, Longitudinal Section of a Forsythia Flower. 5.86 A). Flowers come in many shapes, sizes and colours. Fusion may occur in the region of ovaries only (e.g., Pink), ovaries and styles (e.g., Shoe Flower or China Rose) or ovaries, styles and stigmas, (e.g., Petunia). The Flower: A flower is modified shoot. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. The floral organs of Nymphaea (Water Lily) show all stages between a sepal and petal and between a petal and stamen (Fig. Epicalyx occurs in some mem­bers of Rosaceae (e.g., Strawberry) and most of Malvaceae (Shoeflower, Althaea). * *:Three chairs of the steamer type, all maimed, comprised the furniture of this roof-garden, withon one of the copings a row of four red clay flower-pots filled with sun-baked dust from which gnarled and rusty stalks thrust themselves up like withered elfin limbs . The tip of the pistil is often enlarged and lobed. Each anther has two lobes which are attached at the back by a ster­ile band called connective (Fig.5.93 B, D). How the vascular cambium is responsible for secondary growth? For example, Petunia has 5 sepals, 5 petals, 5 stamens but two carpels. (iii) Gynophore between androecium and gynaecium, e.g., Cleome gynandra. 2. 3. 5.86 B). The outermost ones are the sepals. The anther lobes dehisce by pores which appear at the tips (e.g., Solanum, Tomato) or base (e.g., Cassia). The inflorescence is of two types, they are: Racemose and Cymose The latter overlap the two anterior petals which are fused lightly by the upper anterior margins to form a boat-shaped structure called keel or carina. Calyx may be polysepalous (with free sepals) or gamosepalous (with fused sepals). Passion flower (Passiflora) and Cleome gynandra (Fig. A flower which shows any irregularity in any type of its floral organs, whether in shape, size, colour or origin, is described as irregular. The cohesion between stamens is of three types (Fig. It consists of a filament which is a thread-like structure with a circular structure anther on the top. It is of two types—medianly zygomorphic (e.g., Salvia, Larkspur, Pea, Bean, Gulmohar, Cassia) and laterally zygomorphic (e.g., Fumaria). A flower is asymmetric (irregular) if it cannot be divided into two similar halves by any vertical plane passing through the centre, as in canna. It is of four types (Fig. One or more petals are drawn out like a beak or spur, e.g., Larkspur. The other floral organs are borne at the top of the ovary. 5.95): The an­ther is fixed directly at the top of the filament so that the latter joins the anther at its base, e.g., Mustard (vern. 5.89). A false septum called replum develops between the two parietal placentae in Mustatd and other members of family Brassicaceae. Spurred stamens occur in Viola. Rarely the thalamus is prolonged into gynaecium to form a central axis called carpophore (e.g., Coriander). In lily, as shown in the figures above and below, the sepals and petals look almost identical and are thus called tepals. Such a flower is called heteromerous. The ovary is usually unilocular (Fig. Each fertile anther lobe contains two pollen sacs or chambers. Inside the calyx are the petals, which are usually more brightly colored and less leaflike than the sepals. Placenta is a parenchymatous cushion present inside the ovary where ovules are borne. To the inside of the perianth are the stamens. When a plant bears only one type of unisexal flowers, it is termed as dioecious, e.g., Date Palm, Mulberry, Coccmia grandis. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. When there is no distinction of sepals and petals, the nonessential floral organs are collec­tively called perianth. Inflorescence definition is - the mode of development and arrangement of flowers on an axis. The stamens of Degeneria are expanded like leaves (Fig. When both the anther lobes are present, the stamen is called bithecous. The sepals are similar in morphology to leaves in Rose. Corolla is bilipped. : 3. One margin of a petal overlaps regularly the margin of an adjacent petal; the other margin being overlapped by margin of another adjacent petal, e.g., corolla of China Rose. 5.85 B, D). A cuticle-covered epidermis overlies a core of parenchyma cells in which there are branching vascular bundles (solitary bundles in most stamens). 5.94): The stamens are fused by their filaments only. Wall of anther lobes breaks at places and gets lifted like valves to expose the pollen grains, e.g., Camphor, Barberry. ... appendages Agriculture & Biology. )Plants produce both leaf and flower primordia cells at the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Like a branch, it may develop in the axil of small leaf-like structure called bract. https://www.toppr.com/guides/biology/morphology-of-flowering-plants/flower Reproduction is the process of multiplication of a particular species, and there are two modes of reproduction for every living being: asexual and sexual. The thalamus is hollowed out in the form of a flask but its internal wall is fused with wall of the ovary. Style and stigma are not differentiated. The regular, bisexual flowers of sweetbrier, or eglantine (Rosa eglanteria), generally develop as single flowers with floral parts in multiples of five. We will look at the generalized flower to become familiar with flower parts. Accidental: Accidental refers to the occurrences or existence of all those species that would not be found in a particular region under normal circumstances. The inflorescence is defined as the arrangement of a cluster of flowers on a floral axis. When Floral appendages are in multiple of 3,4 or 5 they are called trimerous, tetramerous and pentamerous respectively. The free occurring unit of gynaecium is called pistil. Its one end bears a fertile anther lobe while the other end has a sterile anther lobe. We will discuss the role of people in the origin, evolution and dispersal of food, drug and economic plants, and the influences of plants on human societies. Only the style and stigma of the pistil is observable from the upper side. In a plant, flowers may grow either as a single flower or as a group. Autonomous flowering is where internal developmental cues lead to floral initiation. The two common types of unequal stamens are tetradynamous (four long and two short, e.g., Mustard) and didynamous (two long and two short, e.g., Ocimum). A flower, which can be divided into two equal vertical halves by one plane only, is termed as zygomorphic. 9. Lilies are monocots. 6. Hairs are generally present at the point of union between the two, e.g., ray floret of Sunflower. Something added or attached to an entity of greater importance or size; an adjunct. In this section we will examine only a few aspects of flower morphology. Monocots have flower parts in whorls of threes (or multiples of threes). The stalk to which the anther is attached is called the filament. Explain its significance. Except for the lower internode, other internodes of the flower are imperceptible. Carpels may be free, when gynaecium is called apocarpous (e.g., polycarpellary apocarpous in Rose, Lotus, Ranunculus) or fused when it is known as syncarpous (= compound, like bicarpellary syncarpous in Mustard and Petunia, tricarpellary syncarpous in Asphodelus, polycarpellary syncarpous in Althaea). A slight enlargement separates the two anther lobes to make them divaricate or diver­gent (e.g., Petunia). 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